Desk 2. For men, amount of audio analysed is given just like the final number while the a number of songs analysed for each private inside the brackets. For men, quantity of colony sites equal the number of guys filed angelreturn-quizzen, for females, they is short for exactly how many nests of which i seen him or her. Male sound features was indeed averaged toward individual level in advance of calculating the fresh showed data. Indicate ± SD | Median is given to your amount of pulses each voice, years, heart rate and you may principal frequency
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Figure step three. Several heartbeat songs developed by the corkwing wrasse. Wave-form (top) and involved spectrogram (below). (a) Grunt regarding an excellent territorial men corkwing wrasse. (b) Strong grunt out of a great territorial men corkwing wrasse. (c) Grunt regarding a woman corkwing wrasse. Spectrogram configurations: fifty dB vibrant variety, Hamming windows (increased sine-squared), 0.008 s windows size (female and male grunt), 0.08 s window size (men deep grunt)
Shape step 3. Numerous pulse tunes developed by the new corkwing wrasse. Wave form (top) and you can corresponding spectrogram (below). (a) Grunt from an effective territorial men corkwing wrasse. (b) Strong grunt out of an effective territorial men corkwing wrasse. (c) Grunt regarding a woman corkwing wrasse. Spectrogram settings: 50 dB dynamic variety, Hamming window (elevated sine-squared), 0.008 s screen duration (men and women grunt), 0.08 s windows size (men strong grunt)
Because of the different structure of grunts and deep grunts, we only compared the sound properties statistically, which were the same in both types of grunt, i.e. dominant frequency and duration. The two male grunt types differ significantly from each other in both propertiespared to deep grunts, male grunts are of a shorter duration (t-test: t = 5.44, P < 0.001, CI = ?0.47–1.09). The dominant frequency is higher in male grunts than in male deep grunts (Mann Whitney U test: W = 0, N1 = 17, N2 = 11, P < 0.001). Table 2 presents all measured sound properties for comparison.
Compared to male grunts, female grunts had a significantly lower pulse-rate (t-test: t = -6.71, P < 0.0001, CI = -- -). Grunts of males and females had a similar dominant frequency (t-test: t = 1.38, P = 0.17, CI = -0.05- 0.26), duration (t-test: t = 0.47, P = 0.64, CI = -0.19- 0.26), and number of pulses (Mann Whitney U test: W = 302, N1 = 17, N2 = 35, P = 0.94).
Single-heart circulation songs
The selection of certainly assignable ticks contributed to the study regarding 102 men ticks away from 29 video away from 19 some one and you may 66 women clicks from 20 clips at nests from fourteen people. Your selection of clearly assignable plops contributed to the analysis away from 73 men plops from twenty eight video clips out of 18 clips and you may 66 girls plops out of 21 videos on nests out-of 14 boys. Averaging men music per individual male lead to an example sized letter = 18 to own presses, and you can n = 17 to possess plops.
Clicks are sharp, single-pulse broadband sounds with their main energy in a frequency range of several hundred Hz, while the sound pressure level difference across the harmonics are small (Figure 4(a), Table 3). The dominant frequency of clicks was significantly higher in males than in females (Mann Whitney U test: W = 409, N1 = 35, N2 = 66, P = 0.04). However, there were some female clicks for which the dominant frequency was much higher than in most clicks (up to 7200 Hz). We did not see any technical reason to exclude these outliers from the analysis. Clicks did not differ between males and females in the sound pressure level difference between dominant frequency and its 5 th harmonic (t-test: t48.4 = 0.84, P = 0.40, CI = ?2.17–5.31).